Effect of Sodium Carbonate (Potash) On the Birth Weight of Albino Rat Pups

Bedan Ishaya Helga, Nicholas Ojo, Martha Orendu Attah

Abstract


Background: Potash (sodium carbonate) is a lake salt that is white in appearance and may be found in form of powder or granules. In Africa, especially in Northern Nigeria, it is the second most popularly used salt, especially by pregnant women in their second trimesters in an attempt to reduce the weight of their babies to ensure an easier vaginal delivery. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of potash when consumed by maternal rat during its gestation period on the birth weight of pups.

Material and methods: Twenty four (24) pregnant female rats were grouped into four of six (6) rats each. Three experimental groups (E1-3) were administered 200,400 and 800mg/kg body weight which was equivalent to 0.34ml, 0.68ml and 1.236ml respectively per day of stock solution of potash via orogastric intubation from the first day of conception till term, the forth group served as control (C), and received distilled water at equivalent dosage level with the experimental group three (E3).

The six pregnant rats in each group were allowed to undergo spontaneous vaginal delivery and themean corresponding birth weight of litter in each experimental group was statistically analyzed and compared with that of the control group where p>0.05 was considered not significant at concentration up to 400mg/kg but at a dosage of 800mg/kg, P<0.001 was considered highly significant

Findings: Statistical analysis of birth weight in each group showed that the P value of individual group is not significant. The birth weight of control group was compared with each experimental group and the result obtained from statistical analysis revealed that at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, P>0.05 was considered not significant. It may be concluded that potash does not affect litter birth weight at concentration of up to 400mg/kg body weight

Conclusion: Consumption of potash especially in large quantity led to a reduction in birth weight in albino rats probably due to the fact that increased sodium administration leads to increased calcium excretion.

Keywords: Albino rats, Birth weight, Cervical plug test, Rat pup and Potash.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bankole, J.K., Njokere, A.A., Ajibade, O.M., Igunbor, C.M. and Eloka, C.C.V. Degenerative effects of Potash (K2Co3) on the Kidney. Unabated Continental Challenge to Human Health in Nigeria, Annals of Biological Research, 6(3), 2015, pp 12-17

Oyeleke, O.A. (1988) Effects of Consuption of Kanwa in Food and Water on Certain Physiological States of Rats Nig. Journal of Nutri. Sci.4, 199pp 137-139

Abdullahi D. (2006) Some Harmful Traditional Birth Practices in Northern Nigeria and Making Child Birth in Safer in Nigeria. J. Physiol. 79. Pp 13-16

Nigerian Blog about Nig. Foods, Relationship, Marriage, Family, Parenting, Fashion, Lifestyle & Entertainment Four Nigerian Foods to Avoid During Pregnancy (2015).

World Health Organisation (2016) Health Statistics & Information system; Maternal Mortality Ratio

Maternity World Wide Organisation (2015) Causes of Maternal Death during Child Birth

Monica, B and Bennette, F.J. (1979) Community Nursing in Developing Countries. 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press. Pp 52-65

Gennaro, A.R. (2000) The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 20th Ed. 4 pp 128

Max, Q (2010) Potash/ Potassium Chloride Product. Material Safety Data Sheet 2nd ed. 1:613-996

Godfrey, KM and Barker, DJ (2001) Fetal Programming and adult Health. J. Public Health Nut. 4. 611-624 pmid: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2001145

Burge, G.C., Dunn, R.L., Wooden, S.A. and Jackson, A.A. (2002) Effects of Reduced Dietary Protein Intake on Hepatic and Plasma Essential Fatty acid Concentration on the adult Female Rat. Br. J. Nut. 88. 378-387

McIntosh, H.W. (1964) Effects of dietary Sodium Restriction on Urinary Excretion of Calcium Clin. Res. 12. 124

Kleeman, C.R., Bohanna, J., Bemstem, D. Ling, S. and Maxwell, M.H. (1964) Effect of Variation in Sodium Intake on Calcium Excretion in Normal Human Proc. Soc. Explt. Biol. MED. 115. 29 doi:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14117460

King, J.S., Jackson, R. and Asha, B. (1964) Relation of Sodium to Calcium Excretion J of Invest. Urology (1964)

Macfadyen, T.F. (1965) Effects of Variation in Dietary Calcium on Plasma Concentration and Urinary Excretion of Calcium Br. Med. J. 1.161-164

Von-Wendt, E. (1905) Understanding the use of Earth Salt in Renal Excretion in Man Journal of Physiol. 17. 211

Walser, W.G., Jost, L.J., Johnson, J.R. and Kowarki, A. (1965) Metabolic Observation on Salt Wasting in Patient with Renal Disease Am. J. of Med. 39. 505

Modlin, M. (1966) The Interrelation of Urinary Calcium and Sodium in Normal Adults Invest. Urol. 4. 180 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9654646

Eriksson, J.G., Tuomilehto, J., Osmond, C. and Barker, D.J. (2001) Effect of diet on Early Growth and Coronary Heart Disease in later life: Longitudinal Study J. Biochem. 322. 949-953

Park, K.S., Kim, M.S., Cho, E.E., Lee, J.H., Lee, K.U. (1967)Fetal and Early Postnatal Protein Malnutrition Cause Long-term Changes in rats liver and Muscle Mitochondria. Jour. Nutr. 133. 3085-3090

Snejana, P., Alexzandra, T. and Eugenia, D. (2009) Litter Weight Dynamics from Birth until Weaning in Rats Exposed in Utero to Potassium Dichromate.J of Verinary Medicine Volume 42 (2) 20-26

Salmasi, G. and Grady, R.J. (2010) Enviromental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Perinatal outcome Systemic Review and Meta- Analysis. J. Obste. Gynecol. 89 (4). 423-441

Kanoja, RK, and Junaid M, Embryo and Fetotoxicity of hexavalent chromium: a long term study, Toxicology Letters, 1998, 95(3), pp165-172


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences ISSN 2292-793X (Online) Published by Nova Pub inc.

Nova Explore Publications
is a member of CrossRef.
DOI Prefix: 10.20286